Ethnobotany, single or multiple herbs (polyherbal)

An ethnobotanical survey of single or multiple herbs (polyherbal) used in the traditional treatment of ailments in Qorveh-e Darjazin district (province Hamedan), Iran

Abstract:

Objective: To identify medicinal usage of the herbs individually or in polyherbal combination used by people to cure various ailments, Qorveh-e Darjazin district of Hamedan province of Iran was ethno-botanically surveyed.

Methods: Data were collected using interviewing 87 people in 28 villages. Plants voucher samples were also collected and classified with their families, botanical terms, local names, usages and miscellaneous matters via international and standard questionnaires.

Results: Results showed that 45 plant species of 27 families are used by the villagers of this district to treat patients with a wide range of complaints, such as cardiovascular diseases, ulcers, diarrhea, catarrh, constipation disposal, high blood pressure lowering, kidney stone etc. Data were compared with those formerly gathered. The authors also found that polyherbalism or polyherbal medicine is a preferred folk medicinal system of this area to prevent unwanted suffering of prevalent, intense or serious ailments with the more palatable and high life-span formulation of natural elements or the multiple herbs in a particular ratio by restoring balance, better therapeutic effect, reducing the toxicity and living a long healthy life.

Conclusions: Therefore, polyherbal combinations of medicinal plants can be considered as an applicable strategy in control measures against diseases and achieve greater therapeutic efficacy.

Key words: Ethnobotany, single or multiple herbs (polyherbal), ailment, traditional medicine, Hamedan

Introduction

Plants have been the basis of traditional medicine systems for thousands of years while they still widely practiced today to provide mankind with new remedies to attempt cures for diseases and to relive physical suffering [1]. So, the contributions of nature of our universe as a source of chemotherapeutic agents has always been continuing; so that, the main components of the drugs in clinical use are formed of natural products and their derivatives [2]. Chemical drugs are currently being replaced by herbal remedies especially in Asian countries [3] because of harmful, irreversible and side effects of their chemical structure on people [4, 5]. Pharmaceutical experts believe that of traditional medicine in developing countries is a main basis for maintaining good health [3, 6]. Also, medicinal plants received much attention in agro-alimentary food, commerce, textile and allied industries [7], pharmaceutical and perfumes industries, and natural cosmetic products [8].

According to the World Health Organization’s report, much of the world’s population (about 80 percent) still rely on the traditional medicine or plant-derived medicines for their daily wellness and health needs [1]. It is estimated that a 80% of Iran’s population depend on plants to cure themselves [9]. In countries as the United States, about 60% of its population use plants to fight certain diseases and ailments. In Pakistan and China there is more demand of medicinal plants than of “official” medicines to cure themselves (80% and 40%, respectively) [10].

Although the use of plants in chemical medicine despite the availability of medicinal plants has decreased but substantial information about folk medicine still remain among the population [6, 11]. People who use folk herbal remedies may not understand the scientific rationale behind that, and they just know from personal experience based on using therapeutic doses of some highly usable medicinal plants. Hence, recording information and focusing on the ethno pharmacy researches of small districts permits the rediscovery of the new traces of retained traditional knowledge.

Iran’s flora comprises about 6417 species, 611 subespecie, 465 variedad and 83 híbrido, 1810 taxon of which are endemic [12]. The first written versions derived from medicinal plants, goes back to 3000 BC including the world’s major civilizations of Persia, Egypt, Middle East, Ancient Greece, India and China [13]. Iranian people have utilized plants as medicinal remedies, as well as for food, dyes, fuel, ornament, furniture, agricultural tools, construction materials and cosmetics.

The Qorveh-e Darjazin district of Hamedan is consisted of 28 villages and a population of 40299 people in year 2006 [14]. Most of the population that is engaged in subsistence agriculture has also been found professional in using medicinal plants to treat a wide range of ailments and diseases.

Therefore, in line with the needs of people of the global majority to medicinal plants and drug discovery, an ethnobotanical survey was made of Qorveh-e Darjazin District of Hamedan province, Iran. The main purpose of the study was to identify medicinal usage of the herbs individually or in polyherbal combination used by people of this area to cure various ailments.

Methodology

Study area

Hamedan province is located in the West of Iran, and has 28 cities (Figure 1) [15]. The Qorveh-e Darjazin district is located North East of Hamedan, situated between 35°621ʹN and 49°10ʹE. Its area is 759 km2. The district is 85 km away from the provincial capital and is part of Razan town. It is located in the area known as Darjazin that have a very ancient history and famous people of this region have raised. According to the census of Iran, the population of Qorveh-e Darjazin district in 2006 was about 40299 people [14].

This district have two main villages (named Nir and Changarin) and 26 oasis villages such as Darjazin, Soozan, Shavand, etc. (Figure 2). The people of Qorveh-e Darjazin district and all its subsidiaries villages speak Azerbaijani known as Azeri-Turkish language. Most of the resident population in this area is engaged in subsistence agriculture and products such as wheat, barley, grapes are widely cultivated. The soil is made up primarily of types of limestone and most of the land consists of quaternary alluvial deposits. The altitude ranges from 1735 to 1850 m, and the dominant vegetation is pasture and crop plants with durability (viability) and resistant to cold. The coupon method climate of the region is cold semi-arid, cold and snowy in winter and temperate in the summer. The annual mean temperature value is 5.11 °C (Min is –34 °C and Max is 24°C). The area is covered with snow from November to April [14, 16].

Investigative method

The study started from December 05 2013 and the study was performed during 1 year (2014) from June to October, the flowering and fruiting periods of plants. All 28 villages were screened to collect ethno botanical information using semi structured and structured questionnaires according to Özgen et al. [6] including identification data such as local name, part used, and medicinal usage for plant. Interviews were held with 87 people (47 women, 40 men) and most of the interviewees were over 40 years old and belonged to those that still are traditional farmers with pastoral activities, mainly sheep or goat breeding. All the informants about plant species were collected and then identified. Samples of used standard questionnaires are listed on a page at the end of the paper.

For the interviews, people who were locally expert in medicinal plants were asked to describe the method of preparation and use of the medical remedies for each plant species. Meanwhile, some fresh and or dried plant specimens were shown to the participated informants. The some collected plant specimens were dried and taxonomically identified by botanists by using floristic and taxonomic references, especially Flora Iranica to confirm the plant names [17].

Some of the plant specimens were collected for only identification and they were not deposited in any herbariums. The scientific names of species were checked and validated taxonomically via the plant list (www.theplantlist.org) and the international plant names index (http://www.ipni.org/ipni/plantnamesearchpage.do).  In addition, the ethno medicinal data were analyzed according to plant families, traditional preparation, and part used.

RESULTS

A total of 45 specimens belonging to 27 plant families were recorded as folk medicines being used in the villages of Qorveh-e Darjazin district. Based on the 45 specimens, 76 medicinal plant usages were explained for 55 herbal folk remedies. Table 1 shows the obtained results and lists plants used as remedies in alphabetical order by family as well as the most important medicinal plant usages.

The families with the highest number of reported medicinal species were Asteraceae (5 specimens), Lamiaceae (4 specimens), Apiaceae (4 specimens), Fabaceae (3 specimens). For each species, the following ethnobotanical and pharmacognostic information are provided: scientific name and number, local or vernacular name, preparations, parts used, therapeutic uses, citations, and percentage of reports, which was 401. The 45 medicinal plant species including the wild and none-wild were collected from cultivated material (Table 1). The species with the highest uses’ records as special herbal medicine in the Qorveh-e Darjazin area were Achillea eriophora L., Cichorium intybus L., Althea officinalis L., Borago officinalis L., Mentha spp., Salix aegyptiaca L., Melissa officinalis L., Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. & Hohen. (Table 1).

The most common traditional or local forms of preparation and application of the 49 herbal remedies from 45 medicinal plant species were decoction (as tea), eaten fresh, powder and distillate, respectively (Tables 1-3, Figure 3).  Results also showed that people in this region usually  use seeds that have better possibility of polyherbal combination with the reported herbs, fruits, leaves and flowers in the different mixtures, formulation and preparation forms, to achieve greater therapeutic usage and reduce the toxicity, without any side effects upon the interviewer’s claim (Tables 3 and 4, Figure 4).

Table 4 showed therapeutic uses of the 49 herbal remedies from 45 medicinal plant species and Polyherbal combination possibility of medicinal plants species for the treatment of prevalent diseases.  In this table, the disease states treated (expressed as percentage of the total records) are summarized. The local people choose herbal remedies mainly for treatment digestive system diseases (11.8%), urinary system disorders (7.89%), skin disorders and rash, hemorrhoids and sunstroke (6.57%), lung diseases,  cold and fever, blood purification and or improving sexual stamina and boosting semen volume, sperm count and motility (5.26%), and for lipid and cholesterol lowering , treatment of anemia, stomach aches, gastric ulcers, and heartburn and enhancing intelligence , (3.94%), and for bone diseases, rheumatism, hypertension, biliary excretion, arrhythmia, calming the nervous system, menstrual irregularities, diarrhea, eye movements and reinforcement, cosmetics (2.63%).

Some species are used for similar purposes in this region and other areas of Iran. Results of table 4 also showed that for treatment of ailments there are more than two medicinal plant species that are individually or in polyherbal combination used by people of the villages. These species are Anemone coronaria L., Astragalus adscendens Boiss & Hausskn., Centaurium cyanus L., Calendula officinalis L., Cucumis sativus L., Cyperus officinalis T.Nees, Plantago major L., Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. & Hohen., Ficus carica L. (had been used for digestive system ailments, respectively), Borago officinalis L., Citrulus vulgaris L., Zea mays L., Apium graveolens L., Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. & Hohen., Tragopogoh collinus L. (had been used for urinary system disorders, respectively), Achillea eriophora L., Aethusa cynapium L., Nigella sativa L., Chenopodium spp., Berberis integerrima Bunge (had been used for skin disorders and rash, respectively), Astragalus adscendens Boiss & Hausskn., Cucumis sativus L., Cyperus officinalis L., Plantago major L., Ficus carica L. (for hemorrhoids), Salix aegyptiaca L., Cichorium intybusl L., Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. & Hohen., Mentha spp., Origanum dictamnus L. (against sunstroke, respectively), Origanum dictamnus L., Althea officinalis L., Brassica rapa L., Beta vulgaris L. (for lung diseases, respectively), Muscari comosum (L.) Mill., Juglans regia L., Amygdalus communis L., Corylus avellana L. (for improving sexual stamina and boosting semen volume, sperm count and motility), Berberis integerrima L., Citrus bergamia Risso, Punica granatum L., Borago officinalis L. (for blood purification) and Althea officinalis L., Beta vulgaris L., Malva sylvestris L., Brassica rapa L. (against cold & fever, respectively), and Rhus coriaria L., Citrus bergamia Risso, Cichorium intybusl L. (for lipid and cholesterol lowering), Conium maculatum L., Althea officinalis L., Beta vulgaris L. (against stomach aches, gastric ulcers, and heartburn, respectively), Amygdalus communis L., Juglans regia L., Corylus avellana L. (for enhancing intelligence), Spinacia oleraceael L., Cicer arietinum L., Phaseolus mungo L. (against anemia), Brassica oleracea L., Phaseolus mungo L. (against bone diseases and rheumatism, respectively), Allium sativum L., Morus nigra  L. (against hypertension), Centaurium cyanus L., Calendula officinalis L. (for control biliary excretion), Mentha spp., Borago officinalis L. (against arrhythmia), Melissa officinalis V, Salix aegyptiaca L. (for calming the nervous system), Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. & Hohen., Achillea eriophora DC. (against menstrual irregularities in women), Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. & Hohen., Mentha spp. (against diarrhea), Geranium spp., Origanium diktamnus L. (for eye movements and reinforcement), Amygdalus communis L., Corylus avellana L. (for cosmetics).

Many of the villages’ people stated that a combination of the related medicinal plants can be so effective when the ailment is intense and serious and they believe it can be considered as an applicable strategy in control measures against diseases and improve primary health care. Medicinal plants typically contain mixtures of chemical compounds that may act in synergy, additively or individually to improve health [18]. Since no disease has just one single symptom and many different factors may interfere in the pathogenesis of a disease, there is a need to different medicinal plants to resolve the various signs and symptoms of a disease. The various plants in a polyherbal medicine may increase the affectivity and potency of the formulation, reduce unwanted effects, make the formulation more palatable and increase its life-span. In fact, all the herbs in a polyherbal formulation are active and have their own effect [19].

This study’s data and observations obtained from village people were compared with information formerly recorded from other regions of Iran [20-25] as well as earlier data from the neighbor area in Hamedan city [3, 26, 27].

This is likely one of the first reports of some plant species being used in folk medicine in Qorveh-e Darjazin district of Hamedan, and unique research in Iran. The species concerned are Achillea eriophora L., Aethusa cynapium V, Allium sativum V, Althea officinalis L., Amygdalus communis L., Anemone coronaria L., Apium graveolens L., Astragalus adscendens Boiss & Hausskn., Avena sativa L., Berberis integerrima L., Beta vulgaris L., Borago officinalis L., Brassica oleracea L., Brassica rapa L., Calendula officinalis L., Carum carvi L., Centaurium cyanus L., Chenopodium spp., Cichorium intybus L., Citrullus vulgaris L., Citrus bergamia Risso, Conium maculatum L., Corylus avellana L., Cucumis sativus L., Cyperus officinalis L., Ficus carica L., Geranium spp., Juglans regia L., Melissa officinalis L., Mentha spp., Malva sylvestris L., Marus nigra L., Muscari comosum (L.) Mill., Nigella sativa L., Origanum dictamnus L., Cicer arietinum L., Phaseolus mungo L., Punica granatum L., Rhus coriaria L., Spinacia oleracea L., Salix aegyptiaca L., Plantago major L., Thymus lancifolius Celak L., Tragopogon collinus DC., and  Zea mays L..

Results showed the high herbal diversity of medicinal plants in the studied area. However, the subsequent works should be aimed to help the phytomedicines studies, standardization of medicinal plant usage and safety in primary health care. From the ethnobotanical survey carried out in Qorveh-e Darjazin district, it can be concluded that local traditions surrounding the use of plants in folk medicine are still extensive and quite varied.

DISCUSSION

Data obtained from other regions of Iran like Hormozgan [28], Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad [20], Esfahan (Mobarakeh) [29], and Hamedan city [3, 26, 27, 30] showed that, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Apiaceae because of their wide range of biologically active compounds [31] were the most used families of medicinal plants for people’s everyday health care needs.

The use’s frequency of the different plant parts in herbal remedy preparation is shown in table 2 and Figure 3. The results showed that the most widely parts of plant species used for medical purposes were the aerial parts, seed, fruit, flower and leaves, respectively. The higher frequency of use of herbs and leaves in herbal remedy preparation is largely due to an easily and readily availability of them [11]. The herbals are generally discovered by the method of isolation and purification, or knowledge on characterization of active ingredients and type of preparation. The term “herbal drug” determines the part(s) of a plant such as leaves, flowers, barks, stems, seeds, roots etc. used for preparing medicines [32]. Each part of the plants are utilized for the different pharmacological action and they may made into a range of herbal preparations including Plantago major L. (Decoction), Melissa officinalis L. (Liquid Extract or distillate), Rhus coriaria L. (Powders), Cicer arietinum L. (cooked), Nigella sativa L. (Ointment) and etc. Özgen et al. [6] believe that distillate and decoctions are simple with more usable preparations and sufficient to make the active ingredients readily available without any further extraction [33].

The majority of human calories come from many edible seeds [34], especially from legumes, cereals and nuts. Also, most cooking oils, beverages, spices and some important food additives are produced from seeds. While some seeds and or plants are edible, some of them are harmful or poisonous because of special chemical compounds to discourage plant herbivores and seed predators. Many of these compounds are toxic or break down into toxic compounds within the digestive system and it can be more susceptible for children.

People who use folk medicinal remedies may not understand their scientific rationale, and they just rely on personal experience based on using therapeutic doses of some highly usable medicinal plants. Since there is a better understanding today of how the body functions, people are thus in a better position to understand the healing powers of medicinal plants and their potential as multi-functional chemical entities for treating complicated health conditions. Therefore, based on the available evidence, we believe that polyherbal combination of medicinal plants species possesses great medicinal usage of the wild and non-wild herbs used by people to cure various ailments.

Study performed by De Silva [35] on industrial utilization of medicinal plants in developing countries showed that the value of trade in herbal medicines has a yearly growth of 12-15%. In fact, the world’s population (about 80%) still relies on their traditional medicines to cure the important and common ailments like digestive system diseases [36-40], liver disease [41, 42], urinary system disorders [43], skin disorders and rash [37, 44], diabetes [45], psychiatric disorders [46], lung diseases [33], pain relief [47], malaria [48] etc. [3, 20, 22, 49] for their everyday health care needs.

The authors believe that polyherbal medicine is a useful tool for providing various interpretations to ethnobotanical knowledge in the intra- and intercommunities. This study provides confidence in that the useful value of polyherbal combination of medicinal plants will extend beyond the existing understanding of ethnobotanical knowledge for the future researches.

Acknowledgements

This project was supported by Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey and also partially sponsored by Young Researchers and Elite Club, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. The authors are very grateful to Dr. Yusuf Kaya, professor of plant biology in Ataturk University of Erzurum, Turkey, Mrs. Azam Karimi and Mrs. Mahshad Yousefi for their assist and also all informants of the study area especially blithe people of Qorveh-e Darjazin districts and Razan town.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests.

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̶̶ 34° 02′ N
̶̶ 35° 47′ N
Qorveh-e Darjazin
Hamadan
49° 35′ E
47° 37′ E
Gh  a  z  v  i  n
M   a   r   k   a   z   i
L o r e s t a n
K e r m a n sh a h
S  a  n  a  n  d  a  j
Z a n j a n

Figure 1. Investigation site

Figure 2. A selected field of Soozan village, Qorveh-e Darjazin district. This district have two main villages (named Nir and Changarin) and 26 oasis villages such as Qara Qāyeh, Nezam Abad, Karafs, Vasmaq, Shavand, Savar, Darjazin, Sonqorabad, Alborz, Piri Beyk, Valashjrd, Razin, Iman, Ahmadabad, Pelican, Wrekin, Poshtejin, Sherkat, Navar, Soozan, Kaaj, Kamandan, Kahard, Behkandan etc.

Figure 3. Plant parts used for the management of various healthcare problems in the villages of Qorveh-e Darjazin District, Hamedan Iran

Figure 4. Local forms of crude drug preparation from medicinal plant/part(s) in the study area.

Table 1. Medicinal plants used in the villages of Qorveh-e Darjazin District, Hamedan, Iran.

No.  

Family and

Botanical name

(A-Z)

Local names in phonetics, Persian, local Azeri (AZ), Turkish (TR), respectively Parts used Uses/ailments treated Preparations Citations
(n) (%)
Amaranthaceae
1 Chenopodium spp. /kæzjɑːkɪ/

غاز یاقی

Ghazyaghi (AZ)

Kazayağı (AZ, TR)

Herb Skin rash with itching Powder Decoction 3 0.74
2 Spinacia oleracea L. /ǝsfɪnɑːʤ/

اسفناج

Spanakh (AZ)

Abdestbozanotu (TR)

Life & stem Treatment of anemia Fresh or cooking 20 4.98
Amaryllidaceae  
3 Allium sativum L. /si:r/

سیر

Sarımsak (AZ, TR)

Fruit High blood pressure lowering Eaten fresh 15 3.74
Anacardiaceae
4 Rhus coriaria L. /sɔ:mɑ:k/

سماق

Sumak (AZ, TR)

Fruit Lipid and cholesterol lowering Powder eaten 8 1.99
Apiaceae
5 Aethusa cynapium L. /ʃɔ:kærɑːne sæki:r/

شوکران صغیر

Shokaran-e-Sagir (AZ)

Köpek, Maydanozu (TR)

Herb Animal bites & Snake bites Decoction 1 0.24
6 Apium graveolens L. /kæræfs/

کرفس

Karafs (AZ)

Kereviz (TR)

Herb Dissolve kidney stones or renal calculi Decoction 9 2.24
7 Carum carvi L. /zi:re sɪjɑːh/

زیره ی سیاه

Kara Zire (AZ)

Şifali Kimyon (TR)

Seed Gripes Decoction 2 0.49
8 Conium maculatum L. /ʃɔ:kærɑːn/

شوکران

Shokaran (AZ)

Baldıran, Ağuotu, Başdöndürenotu (TR)

Herb Stomach aches, gastric ulcers, and heartburn Crushed with Yogurt

 

1 0.24
Asparagaceae
9 Muscari comosum (L.) Mill. /kælɑ:kæke ku:ʃǝʔɪ/

کلاغک خوشه ای

Chanakh Sindiren (Az)

Arap sümbülü (TR)

Herb improving sexual stamina and boosting semen volume, sperm count and motility Powder

(mixed with honey

and eaten)

2 0.49
Asteraceae
10 Achillea eriophora DC. /bu;mɑːdærʌn/

بومادران

Bumadaran (AZ, TR)

Herb Itching & Menstrual irregularities Decoction & Ointment 9 2.24
11 Calendula officinalis L. /hæmi:ʃe bæhɑːr/

همیشه بهار

HamisheBahar (AZ)

Aynısefa (TR)

Herb Biliary excretion Soaking in water whit Sour water 1 0.24
12 Centaurium cyanus L. /gɔ:le gændɔ:m/

گل گندم

Ghol-e Ghandom (Az)

Maviçiçek (TR)

Flower Biliary excretion Decoction 2 0.49
13 Cichorium intybus L. /kɑːsnɪ/

کاسنی

Kasni (AZ)

Yabani Hindiba (TR)

Herb  heat exhaustion ,  sedative, blood purifier, lipid and cholesterol lowering Distillate, Decoction 8 1.99
14 Tragopogon collinus DC. /ʃeng/

شنگ

Yemlik (AZ)

Sarı yemlik (TR)

Leaves Bowel infections, stomach aches, gastric ulcers, and heartburn Fresh eaten or cooking 8 1.99
Berberidaceae
15 Berberis integerrima Bunge /zereʃk/

زرشک

Zereshk (AZ)

Sarıçalı Kızambık (TR)

Fruit Blood purifier &Weld Decoction 11 2.74
Betulaceae
16 Corylus avellana L. /fændɔ:k/

فندق

Fındık (AZ, TR)

Seed Enhancing intelligence & improving sexual stamina and boosting semen volume, sperm count and motility, Composition of eye cosmetics (named Kohls in Cario city in Egypt or Sormea in Iran) Eaten fresh, Powder eaten, Burned 11 2.74
Boraginaceae
17 Borago officinalis L. /gɔ:le gɑːv zæbɑ:n/

گل گاو زبان

Gholghavzaban (AZ)

Hodan (TR)

Flower Blood purifier & Dissolve kidney stones + Heart arrhythmia Decoction 11 2.74
Brassicaceae
18 Brassica oleracea L. /kælæm pi:tʃ/

کلم پیچ

Kalam (AZ)

Lahana (TR)

Life Bone loss treatment and gout Eat in fresh 6 1.49
19 Brassica rapa L. /ʃælkæm/

شلغم

Salgam (AZ, TR)

Root Catarrh & Chest pain Decoction 18 4.48
Chenopodiaceae
20 Beta vulgaris L. /tʃɔ:kɔ:ndær/

چغندر

Choghonder (AZ)

Pancarı (TR)

Root Cold & Fever, Chest pain Fresh & Decoction 13 3.24
Curcurbitaceae  
21 Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. /hendevɑ:ne/

هندوانه

Karpuz (AZ, TR)

Fruit Dissolve kidney stones Decoction, skin of fruit 5 1.24
22 Cucumis sativus L. /kɪ jɑ:r/

خیار

Khıyar (AZ)

Hıyar (TR)

Fruit Constipation disposal Eat in fresh 6 1.49
Cyperaceae
23 Cyperus officinalis T.Nees /bɑ:dɑ:m zæmi:nɪ/

بادام زمینی

Yer Bademi (AZ)

Yer Fıstığı (TR)

Fruit Constipation disposal Eat in fresh 5 1.24
Fabaceae
24 Astragalus adscendens Boiss. & Hausskn. /gævæn/

گوَن

Geven (AZ)

Geven Out (TR)

Herb Swelling of the stomach and intestines, gastric ulcers Powder (eaten with

honey)

3 0.74
25 Cicer arietinum L. /nɔ:kɔ:d/

نخود

Nokhut (AZ)

Nohut (TR)

Seed Increasing blood iron levels Cooked 14 3.49
26 Phaseolus mungo L. /mɑːʃ/

ماش

Mash (AZ)

Fasulye, Mung (TR)

Seed Increasing blood & bone loss treatment Fresh 12 2.99
Geraniaceae
27 Geranium spp. /ʃæʔmdɑ:nɪ/

شمعدانی

Shamdani (AZ)

Sardunya (TR)

Flower &life Eye movements and reinforcement Decoction 2 0.49
Juglandaceae
28 Juglans regia L. /gerdu:/

گردو

Goz (AZ)

Ceviz (TR)

Seed Improving sexual stamina and boosting semen volume, sperm count and motility & enhancing intelligence Eaten fresh or Dry 13 3.24
Lamiaceae
29 Melissa officinalis L. /bɑ:drænʤbu:/

بادرنجبو

Badresncbu (AZ)

Oğul out (TR)

Herb Calming the nervous system  & Schizophrenia Distillate 10 2.49
30 Mentha spp. /næʔnɑ:ʔ/

نعناع

Nana (AZ)

Nane (TR)

Herb Cardiovascular diseases & Diarrhea & Heat exhaustion  & Sedative Fresh, Decoction, Distillate 16 3.99
31 Origanum dictamnus L. /pu:ne  ku:hɪ/

پونه کوهی

Keklikotu (AZ)

Girit kekiği (TR)

Herb Lung disease, heat exhaustion & sedative, Eye movements and reinforcement Decoction, Distillate 5 1.24
32 Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. & Hohen. /ʌzɔ:rbe/

آذربه

Kekik (Az, TR)

Life & Branch Diarrhea & Bowel infections, Menstrual irregularities, Heat exhaustion  & Sedative Powder fresh & Decoction, Distillate 16 3.99
Lythraceae
33 Punica granatum L. /ænɑ:r/

انار

Nar (AZ, TR)

Seed Blood purifier Fresh 16 3.99
Malvaceae
34 Althea officinalis L. /kætmɪ/

ختمی

Khetmi (AZ)

Tıbbi Hatmi (TR)

Flower & seed Cold & Fever Decoction 14 3.49
35 Malva sylvestris L. /pæni:ræk/

پنیرک

Fetirek (AZ)

Yabani ebegümeci (TR)

Herb Laxative& Fever treatment Decoction 2 0.49
Moraceae
36 Ficus carica L. /ænʤi:r/

انجیر

Encir (AZ)

İnciri (TR)

Fruit Chronic constipation Fresh & Dry 17 4.23
37 Morus nigra L. /ʃɑ:tu:t/

شاه توت

Shahtut (AZ)

Dut, Karadut (TR)

Fruit high blood pressure lowering Fresh eaten 21 5.23
Plantaginaceae
38 Plantago major L. /bɑ:rhæng/

بارهنگ

Baharang (AZ)

Büyük Sinirliot (TR)

Seed Skin softening and dispose of excess fluids Decoction 3 0.74
Poaceae
39 Avena sativa L. /ʤɔ:je dɔ: sær/

جو دوسر

Arpa (AZ)

Yulaf (TR)

Seed Jaundice treatment

 

Decoction 4 0.99
40 Zea mays L. /bælɑ:l/

بلال

Zorret (AZ)

Mısır (TR)

Flower (Tassel) Strong diuretic Decoction 3 0.74
Ranunculaceae
41 Anemone coronaria L. /lɑːle sɔ:rk/

لاله سرخ

Kirmizi lale (AZ)

Taçlı dağ lalesi (TR)

Flower Mouth ulcers Decoction 1 0.24
42 Nigella sativa L. /sɪjɑːh  dɑːne/

سیاه دانه

Gharaca (Az)

Çörek, Çörekotu (TR)

Herb Removing a wart Powder, White Vinegar, Ointment 1 0.24
Rosaceae
43 Amygdalus communis L. /bɑ:dɑ:m/

بادام

Badam (AZ)

Badem (TR)

Seed Enhancing intelligence , boosting semen volume, sperm count and motility, Composition of eye cosmetics (named Kohls in Cario city in Egypt and Sormea in Iran) Eaten fresh, Powder eaten, Burned 16 3.99
Rutaceae
44 Citrus bergamia Risso /li:mu: ʃi:ri:n/

لیموشیرین

Limoshirin (Az)

Bergamot (TR)

Fruit Improve blood circulation & Lipid and cholesterol lowering Eaten fresh 19 4.73
Salicaceae
45 Salix aegyptiaca L. /bi:dmeʃk/

بیدمشک

Bidmeshk (AZ)

Söğüt (TR)

Flower Heat exhaustion  & Sedative Distillate, Decoction 18 4.48
401 100

Table 2. Plant parts used for preparation of the 49 herbal remedies from the 45 medicinal plant species growing in in the study area

Plant parts used (A-Z) Absolute value Frequency (%)
Branch 1 2.04
Flower 7 14.28
Fruit 9 18.36
Gum 0 0
Aerial parts 14 28.57
Latex 0 0
Leaves 5 10.20
Root 2 4.08
Seed 10 20.40
Shoot 0 0
Stem 1 2.04
Total 49 100

Table 3. Local forms of preparation and application of the 49 herbal remedies from 45 medicinal plant species growing in the study area

Medicinal preparation Absolute value Frequency (%)
Decoction (as tea) 23 34.84
Distillate 6 9.09
Decoction (as gargle) 0 0
Eaten fresh 16 24.24
Powder 8 12.12
Fresh (externally) 3 4.54
Cooked 3 4.54
Ointment 2 3.03
Eaten dry 3 4.54
Smoke 0 0
Suppository 0 0
Eaten with honey 2 3.03
Total 66 100

 

Table 4. Most used medicinal plant species and their Polyherbal combination for maximum usage in the treatment of various ailments in the study area.

Medicinal plants species Medicinal uses for ailments/ health care Use of Polyherbal combination of medicinal plants species for maximum usage Informants agreement percentage
Absolute value Voucher specimen
5 species for

skin disorders

Achillea eriophora L. Itching 1. Achillea eriophora DC. + Chenopodium spp.,

 

92 %
Aethusa cynapium L. Animal bites & Snake bites
Nigella sativa L. Removing a wart
Chenopodium spp. Skin rash with itching
Berberis integerrima Bunge Blood purifier &Weld
9 species for

digestive system diseases

Anemone coronaria L. Mouth ulcers 1. Centaurium cyanus + Calendula officinalis L.

 

2. Cucumis sativus L. + Cyperus officinalis L.

 

3. Cucumis sativus L. + Cyperus officinalis T.Nees + Ficus carica L.

 

4. Astragalus adscendens Boiss & Hausskn. + Cucumis sativus L. + Cyperus officinalis T.Nees + Plantago major L. + Ficus carica L.

65%

 

85%

 

71%

 

97%

Astragalus adscendens Boiss & Hausskn. Swelling of the stomach and intestines
Centaurium cyanus,

Calendula officinalis L.

Biliary excretion
Cucumis sativus L.

Cyperus officinalis L.

Constipation disposal
Plantago major L. Skin softening and dispose of excess fluids
Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. & Hohen. Diarrhea & Bowel infections & Menstrual irregularities , Heat exhaustion  & Sedative
Ficus carica L. Chronic Constipation
Astragalus adscendens Boiss  & Hausskn. Swelling of the stomach and intestines, hemorrhoids
4 species for respiratory diseases Origanum dictamnus L. Lung disease, heat exhaustion & sedative, Eye movements and reinforcement 1. Brassica rapa L. + Beta vulgaris L.

 

 

2. Althea officinalis + Beta vulgaris L. + Brassica rapa L.

 

95%

 

75%

 

Althea officinalis, Cold & Fever
Brassica rapa L. Catarrh & Chest pain
Beta vulgaris L. Cold & Chest pain, Fever
6 species for urinary system disorders Borago officinalis L. Blood purifier & Dissolve kidney stones s + Heart arrhythmia 1. Borago officinalis L. + Zea mays L. + Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. + Apium graveolens L. 75%
Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. Dissolve kidney stones
Zea mays L. Strong diuretic
Apium graveolens L. Dissolve kidney stones or renal calculi
Thymus kotschyanus  Boiss. & Hohen. Diarrhea & Bowel infections & Menstrual irregularities, Heat exhaustion  & Sedative
Tragopogon collinus DC. Bowel infections  + Stomach aches, gastric ulcers, and heartburn
3 species for Stomach aches, gastric ulcers, and heartburn Conium maculatum L. Stomach aches, gastric ulcers, and heartburn 1. Althea officinalis + Beta vulgaris L. 84%
Althea officinalis Cold & Fever
Beta vulgaris L. Cold, Fever, Chest pain,
2 species for bone diseases, rheumatism Brassica oleracea L. Bone diseases and gout 1. Phaseolus mungo L. + Brassica oleracea L. 90%
Phaseolus mungo  L. Increasing blood & bone loss treatment
2 species for hypertension Allium sativum L.

Morus nigra L.

High blood pressure lowering 1. Allium sativum L. + Morus nigra L. 65%
2 species for arrhythmia Mentha spp. Cardiovascular diseases  & Diarrhea & Heat exhaustion  & Sedative 1. Borago officinalis L. + Mentha spp.

 

45%
Borago officinalis L. Blood purifier & Dissolve kidney stones + Heart arrhythmia
3 species for anemia Spinacia oleraceael L. Treatment of anemia 1. Spinacia oleraceael L. + Cicer arietinum L. + Phaseolus mungo L. 78%

 

Cicer arietinum L. Increasing blood iron levels
Phaseolus mungo L. Increasing blood & bone loss treatment
2 species for calm nerves Melissa officinalis L. Calming the nervous system & Schizophrenia 2. Melissa officinalis L. + Salix aegyptiaca  L.

 

80%
Salix aegyptiaca L. Heat exhaustion  & Sedative
2 species for irregular menstruation Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. & Hohen. Diarrhea & Bowel infections & Menstrual irregularities, Heat exhaustion  & Sedative
Achillea eriophora L. Itching & Menstrual irregularities
2 species for diarrhea Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. & Hohen. Diarrhea & Bowel infections & Menstrual irregularities, Heat exhaustion  & Sedative 1. Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. & Hohen.

+ Mentha spp.

84%
Mentha spp. Cardiovascular diseases & Diarrhea & Heat exhaustion  & Sedative
4 species for blood purifier Berberis integerrima L. Blood purifier &Weld
Citrus bergamia Risso Smooth blood, Lipid and cholesterol lowering
Punica granatum L. Blood purifier
Borago officinalis L. Blood purifier & Dissolve kidney stones + Heart arrhythmia
5 species for sunstroke Salix aegyptiaca L. Heat exhaustion  & Sedative 1. Salix aegyptiaca L. + Cichorium intybusl L.

 

 

2. Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. & Hohen.+ Mentha spp. + Origanum dictamnus L.

77%

 

 

70%

Cichorium intybusl L.

 

Blood purifier, heat exhaustion, Sedative, Lipid and cholesterol lowering
Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. & Hohen. Diarrhea & Bowel infections & Menstrual irregularities, Heat exhaustion  & Sedative
Mentha spp.

 

Cardiovascular diseases & Diarrhea & Heat exhaustion  & Sedative
Origanum dictamnus L. Lung disease, heat exhaustion,

Sedative, Eye movements and reinforcement

4 species for cold and fever Althea officinalis Cold & Fever

& Chest pain

1.  Beta vulgaris L. + Brassica rapa L.

 

2. Althea officinalis + Malva sylvestris L.

 

82%

 

 

90%

Beta vulgaris L.
Malva sylvestris L. Laxative, Fever,

Catarrh & Chest pain

Brassica rapa L.
2 species for eye reinforcement Geranium spp. Eye movements and reinforcement Lung disease, heat exhaustion,

Sedative, Eye movements and reinforcement

1. Geranium spp. + Origanum dictamnus L.

 

58%
Origanum dictamnus L.
3 species for Lipid and cholesterol lowering Rhus coriaria L. Lipid and cholesterol lowering

Smooth blood, Lipid and cholesterol lowering

Citrus bergamia Risso

 

Cichorium intybusl L. Blood purifier & Removal

Heatstroke & Sedative, Lipid and cholesterol lowering

4 species for increase the sexual power and sperm,

increase IQ, cosmetics

Muscari comosum (L.) Mill. Improving sexual stamina and boosting semen volume, sperm count and motility 1. Juglans regia L. + Amygdalus communis L. + Corylus avellana L.

 

98%
Juglans regia L. improving sexual stamina and boosting semen volume, sperm count and motility  & enhancing intelligence , Composition of eye cosmetics (named Kohls in Cairo city, Egypt or Sormea in Iran)
Amygdalus communis L.
Corylus avellana L.

 

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